- What Does Diffraction Depend On
- On Which Factors Diffraction Of Light Depends On Time
- What Affects Diffraction
The transmission depends on several factors, including absorption by lens elements and cements, reflection losses at the optical interfaces, and transmittances of the lamp jacket, diffusing screen, filters, polarizers, and other auxiliary optical components.
- State any one difference between interference of light and diffraction of light. Match the following. On which factors, diffraction of light depends?
- The perpendicular distance between the incident ray and the emergent ray gives us the lateral shift.It depends on the angle of incidence, refractive index and thickness of the refractive medium. The sideways shift in the path of light on emerging from a refracting medium with parallel faces is called lateral shift.
- Diffraction through a Single Slit. Light passing through a single slit forms a diffraction pattern somewhat different from those formed by double slits or diffraction gratings, which we discussed in the chapter on interference. Shows a single-slit diffraction pattern. Note that the central maximum is larger than maxima on either side and that.
Diffraction is the slight bending of light as it passes around the edge of an object. The amount of bending depends on the relative size of the wavelength of light to the size of the opening. If the opening is much larger than the light's wavelength, the bending will be almost unnoticeable. However, if the two are closer in size or equal, the amount of bending is considerable, and easily seen with the naked eye.
What Does Diffraction Depend On
In the atmosphere, diffracted light is actually bent around atmospheric particles -- most commonly, the atmospheric particles are tiny water droplets found in clouds. Diffracted light can produce fringes of light, dark or colored bands. An optical effect that results from the diffraction of light is the silver lining sometimes found around the edges of clouds or coronas surrounding the sun or moon. The illustration above shows how light (from either the sun or the moon) is bent around small droplets in the cloud.
On Which Factors Diffraction Of Light Depends On Time
Optical effects resulting from diffraction are produced through the interference of light waves. To visualize this, imagine light waves as water waves. If water waves were incident upon a float residing on the water surface, the float would bounce up and down in response to the incident waves, producing waves of its own. As these waves spread outward in all directions from the float, they interact with other water waves. If the crests of two waves combine, an amplified wave is produced (constructive interference). However, if a crest of one wave and a trough of another wave combine, they cancel each other out to produce no vertical displacement (destructive interference).
This concept also applies to light waves. When sunlight (or moonlight) encounters a cloud droplet, light waves are altered and interact with one another in a similar manner as the water waves described above. If there is constructive interference, (the crests of two light waves combining), the light will appear brighter. If there is destructive interference, (the trough of one light wave meeting the crest of another), the light will either appear darker or disappear entirely.
air, dust, haze
What Affects Diffraction
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Can you sketch a circuit diagram of a suitable circuit you could use to find out such information?
You should be able to!
Current is the rate of flow of charge. The charge flowing in a wire is carried by the electrons that orbit the atoms that make up the wire. As soon as a potential difference is applied the electrons generally drift in one direction (you can think of it as rolling down a slope). The bigger the p.d. the faster their average speed and the more charge will move past a point in a second - bigger current!
Increasing the number of electrons experiencing 'the slope' will mean more flow past a point in a second and so more charge passes a point in a second and more current flows.
There are four factors that affect the resistance of a wire:
Resistance is proportional to length. If you take a wire of different lengths and give each a particular potential difference across its ends. The longer the wire the less volts each centimetre of it will get. This means that the 'electric slope' that makes the electrons move gets less steep as the wire gets longer, and the average drift velocity of electrons decreases. The correct term for this 'electric slope' is the potential gradient. A smaller potential gradient (less volts per metre) means current decreases with increased length and resistance increases.
Resistance is inversely proportional to cross-sectional-area. The bigger the cross sectional area of the wire the greater the number of electrons that experience the 'electric slope' from the potenetial difference. As the length of the wire does not change each cm still gets the same number of volts across it - the potential gradient does not change and so the average drift velocity of individual elecrons does not change. Although they do not move any faster there are more of them moving so the total charge movement in a given time is greater and current flow increases. This means resistance decreases. This does not give rise to a straight line graph as cross sectional area is inversely proportional to resistance not directly proportional to it.
Resistance depends on the material the wire is made of. The more tightly an atom holds on to its outermost electrons the harder it will be to make a current flow. The electronic configuration of an atom determines how willing the atom will be to allow an electron to leave and wander through the lattice. If a shell is almost full the atom is reluctant to let its electrons wander and the material it is in is an insulator. If the outermost shell (or sub-shell with transition metals) is less than half full then the atom is willing to let those electrons wander and the material is a conductor.
Resistance increases with the temperature of the wire. The hotter wire has a larger resistance because of increased vibration of the atomic lattice. When a material gets hotter the atoms in the lattice vibrate more. This makes it difficult for the electrons to move without interaction with an atom and increases resistance. The relationship between resistance and temperature is not a simple one.
At A level we will put these equations into an equation. Check out the page and read a little further.....